Misinformation and Disinformation of COVID-19 on Social Media in Indonesia


  • Senja Yustitia
  • Panji Dwi Asharianto




infodemics, misinformation, disinformation, COVID-19, social media


Infodemics in the COVID-19 pandemic situation biases information, and the community's need for the correctness of information becomes increasingly difficult to fulfill. Misinformation and disinformation circulate widely on social media, including instant chat applications. The research problem's formulation is how the contents of COVID-19 misinformation and disinformation that occurred on social media in Indonesia for the period January 20 - March 9, 2020. The research method used is quantitative with a content analysis approach. All misinformation and disinformation cases on social media are taken from cases that have been fact-checked by Mafindo (Indonesian Anti-Defamation Society) in a predetermined period. In total, there were 69 cases of misinformation and disinformation. As a result, there are three main conclusions in this study. First, false context and misleading content are the most common types of misinformation and disinformation. Second, the producers and distributors of these messages are individuals with Facebook and WhatsApp. Third, these findings indicate a tendency for the production and distribution of misinformation and disinformation messages to be carried out by individuals. The high accessibility of the community facilitates this to communication media.


Calisher, C. et al. (2020) Statement in support of the scientists, public health professionals, and medical professionals of China combatting COVID-19, The Lancet. Elsevier Ltd. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30418-9.

Eriyanto (2011) Analisi Isi Pengantar Metodologi untuk Penelitian Ilmu Komunikasi dan Ilmu-ilmu Sosial Lainnya. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media.

Fanani, A. K. (2017) Survei menyebutkan hoax terbanyak soal info kesehatan, Antaranews. Available at: https://www.antaranews.com/berita/626813/survei-menyebutkan-hoax-terbanyak-soal-info-kesehatan (Accessed: 9 September 2020).

Hao, K. and Basu, T. (2020) The coronavirus is the first true social-media ‘infodemic’, MIT Technology Review. Available at: https://www.technologyreview.com/s/615184/the-coronavirus-is-the-first-true-social-media-infodemic/ (Accessed: 15 April 2020).

Jayani, D. H. (2019) Survei CIGI: Facebook, Medsos yang Banyak Digunakan untuk Menyebar Hoaks, Databoks. Available at: https://databoks.katadata.co.id/datapublish/2019/06/14/survei-cigi-facebook-medsos-yang-banyak-digunakan-untuk-menyebar-hoaks (Accessed: 14 September 2020).

Jayani, D. H. (2020) 10 Media Sosial yang Paling Sering Digunakan di Indonesia, Databoks. Available at: https://databoks.katadata.co.id/datapublish/2020/02/26/10-media-sosial-yang-paling-sering-digunakan-di-indonesia (Accessed: 15 September 2020).

Kemenlu (2020) INDONESIA BERSAMA 12 NEGARA PRAKARSAI PERNYATAAN BERSAMA DI PBB TENTANG “ INFODEMIC ”, Kementrian Luar Negeri RI. Available at:https://kemlu.go.id/newyork-un/id/news/7101/indonesia-bersama-12-negara-prakarsai-pernyataan-bersama-di-pbb-tentang-infodemic (Accessed: 9 September 2020).

Khairil, M. (2020) [SALAH] Coronavirus Memiliki Paten, Turnbackhoax. Available at: https://turnbackhoax.id/2020/01/29/salah-coronavirus-memiliki-paten/ (Accessed: 15 September 2020).

PAHO (2020) Understanding the Infodemic and Misinformation in the fight against COVID-19 What is the Infodemic?

Prasanti, D. (2018) ‘Health Information of Literation as Prevention Processes of Hoax Information in the Use of Traditional Medicine in Digital Era (Literasi Informasi Kesehatan sebagai Upaya Pencegahan Informasi Hoax dalam Penggunaan Obat Tradisional di Era Digital)’, Journal Pekommas, 3(1), p. 45. doi: 10.30818/jpkm.2018.2030105.

Ritchtel, M. (2020) W.H.O. Fights a Pandemic Besides Coronavirus: An ‘Infodemic’, NYTimes. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/06/health/coronavirus-misinformation-social-media.html (Accessed: 9 September 2020).

Shu, K. et al. (2017) ‘Fake News Detection on Social Media’, ACM SIGKDD Explorations Newsletter, 19(1), pp. 22–36. DOI: 10.1145/3137597.3137600.

Wardle, C. (2017) Fake news. It’s complicated., First Draft. Available at: https://firstdraftnews.org/latest/fake-news-complicated/ (Accessed: 14 April 2020).

WHO (2020) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), WHO. DOI: 10.1213/xaa.0000000000001218.

Wu, L. et al. (2019) ‘Misinformation in social media: Definition, manipulation, and detection’, ACM SIGKDD Explorations Newsletter, 21(2), pp. 80–90. Available at: https://www.public.asu.edu/~huanliu/papers/Misinformation_LiangWu2019.pdf.

Zarocostas, J. (2020) ‘How to fight an infodemic’, Lancet (London, England). Elsevier Ltd, 395(10225), p. 676. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30461-X.