The Hydrothermal Breccias Characteristics of The Tumpangpitu Porphyry Cu-Au-High Sulphidation Epithermal Au Prospect, Banyuwangi, East Java, Indonesia
Keywords:Hydrothermal Breccias, Alteration-Mineralization, Porphyry, H.S. Epithermal Au
AbstractThe research area is administratively located in the Tumpang Pitu Pit Site, Sumberagung Village, Pesanggaran District, Banyuwangi Regency, East Java Province which is included in the coordinate system of the Universal Transfer Mercator (UTM) WGS 84 zone 50S. Compared with phreatomagmatic activity, which is caused by interaction / direct contact between the body of magma and water, phreatic activity releases less energy, and consequently smaller phreatic breccia dimensions. Phreatic breccia or hydrothermal breccias are quite often misinterpreted as phreatomagmatic structures. Hydrothermal breccias are formed in the hydrothermal system, generally at a depth of 200-300 m, and rarely at a depth of 500-1000 m. Based on geological structure analysis, it can be seen on the structure pattern map in the Tumpang Pitu area, there are 2 major faults in the Northwest - Southeast direction. These 2 major faults are the main controller for the formation of minor faults in the Tumpang Pitu area. There is a structural pattern that develops between these 2 major faults, which is a "metallogentically fertile structure" fault or in this pattern mineralization occurs. Based on field observations, core drilling, ASD analysis, and petrographic analysis, the type of alteration based on the mineral assemblage is divided into five, they are quartz, quartz-alunite, quartz kaolinite, kaolinite-montmorillonite-chlorite, and kaolinite-montmorillonite alteration. Mineralization rocks in the study area are volcanic and volcanic clastic rocks and occur as vuggy replacements and stockworks, disseminated, fractures, and veins. Hydrothermal breccias in the Tumpang Pitu area are characterized by enrichment zones of the hydrothermal system with an abundance of sulfides (Goetite, Hematite and Limonite), with Jigsaw and Crackle breccia textures, the mass in the form of sulfide minerals Goetite, Limonite, Hematite, 50-90% silica content and weak to strong vuggy texture. Veins and veinlet that develop are Sugary quartz - sulphide veins (chalcopyrite, bornite) (A Type), sulphide-center line crystalline veins (B Type), pyrite + quartz-chalcopyrite veins (D Type), early biotite (EB Type), High sulfidation epithermal veins (pyrite- bornite-chalcocite-covellite-tetrahedrite-tennatite-enargite) (HSE type), and Magnetite veins (M Type). Assuming homogenisation temperature is identical to formation temperature, the Tumpang Pitu epithermal gold deposit HS is formed at the intermediate temperature 270?C and 310?C. The average melting temperature is -0.3?C and -0.7?C which correspond to the salinity of hydrothermal fluid of 0.5 to 2% by weight equivalent to NaCl. Paleo depths from shallow and deep samples taken were around 650m and 1220m
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