Preliminary Step for Designing an Agent-Based COVID-19 Spread Model in Indonesia


  • Ismianti Ismianti Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Yogyakarta
  • Eko Nursubiyantoro Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Yogyakarta
  • Astrid Wahyu Adventri Wibowo Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Yogyakarta



Agent-Based, COVID-19, Model, ODD Protocol


The spread of COVID-19 disease is increasingly widespread in various regions around the world. The speed of the spread of COVID-19 varies in different areas. This difference can be caused by multiple things, such as community habits, government policies, and climate. Research on predicting the spread of COVID-19 has been carried out using various methods. One method that can be used to model the spread of COVID-19 is Agent-Based Modeling. Through this model, the spread of the virus can be seen from each individual or agent so that the model will look more real. In making models using Agent-Based Modeling, standardization is necessary so that the model description is 8more complete and easier to understand. Standardization can be done by determining the ODD (Overview, Design Concept, and Details) Protocol. This study will discuss the determination of the ODD Protocol in making agent-based models of the spread of COVID-19 disease. The ODD protocol that has been created can be used to build models and coding in the next step in agent-based modeling.


'Arfani, R. et al. (2019) ‘Penggunaan ODD Protocol dalam Mendesain Model Simulasi Penjadwalan Armada BRT Trans Jogja Berbasis Agen’, pp. 7–8.

Eikenberry, S. E. et al. (2020) ‘To mask or not to mask: Modeling the potential for face mask use by the general public to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic’, Infectious Disease Modelling. Elsevier Ltd, 5, pp. 293–308. DOI: 10.1016/j.idm.2020.04.001.

Grimm, V. et al. (2010) 'The ODD protocol: A review and first update,' Ecological Modelling. Elsevier B.V., 221(23), pp. 2760–2768. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.08.019.

Hunter, E., Namee, B. Mac, and Kelleher, J. (2018) An open-data-driven agent-based model to simulate infectious disease outbreaks.

Kennedy, W. G. (2011) 'Modelling Human Behaviour in Agent- ­ Based Models How not to model human behavior Levels of modeling human behavior The science behind modeling human behavior,' pp. 167–179.

Killeen, G. F., and Kiware, S. S. (2020) 'Why lockdown? Why national unity? Why global solidarity? Simplified arithmetic tools for decision-makers, health professionals, journalists, and the general public to explore containment options for the 2019 novel coronavirus', Infectious Disease Modelling. Elsevier Ltd, 5, pp. 442–458. DOI: 10.1016/j.idm.2020.06.006.

Laskowski, M. et al. (2011) 'Agent-based modeling of the spread of influenza-like illness in an emergency department: A simulation study,' IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, 15(6), pp. 877–889. DOI: 10.1109/TITB.2011.2163414.

Lin, Q. et al. (2020) ‘A conceptual model for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China with individual reaction and governmental action’, International Journal of Infectious Diseases. International Society for Infectious Diseases, 93, pp. 211–216. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.058.

Nuraini, N., Khairudin, K. and Apri, M. (2020) 'Modeling Simulation of COVID-19 in Indonesia based on Early Endemic Data', 3(1), pp. 1–8. DOI: 10.5614/cbms.2020.3.1.1.

Ramadhan, F. and Nugraha, C. (2014) ‘Pemodelan dan Simulasi Berbasis Agen untuk Sistem Industri Kuliner ’, 01(03), pp. 101–113.

Rustan, R. and Handayani, L. (2020) ‘the Outbreak’S Modeling of Coronavirus (Covid-19) Using the Modified Seir Model in Indonesia’, Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya, 5(1), pp. 61–68. doi: 10.21009/spektra.051.07.

Saputra, G. W., Irawan, B. and Kusuma, P. D. (2018) 'MODELING AND SIMULATION THE SPREAD OF TUBERCULOSIS BASED ON AGENT SYSTEM,' in ISSN : 2355-9365 e-Proceeding of Engineering, pp. 6267–6275.

Shereen, M. A. et al. (2020) ‘COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses’, Journal of Advanced Research. THE AUTHORS, 24, pp. 91–98. DOI: 10.1016/j.jare.2020.03.005.

Wilensky, U. and Rand’s, W. (2015) An Introduction to Agent-Based Modeling: Modeling Natural, Social, and Engineered Complex Systems with NetLogo. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Worldailmi, E. and Ismianti, I. (2020) 'Simulation of trends in the use of e-payment using agent-based models,' International Journal of Industrial Optimization, 1(1), pp. 29–42.

Worldometer (2020) COVID-19 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC. Available at: (Accessed: September 24, 2020).

Wu, Y. C., Chen, C. S. and Chan, Y. J. (2020) ‘The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview’, Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 83(3), pp. 217–220. DOI: 10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270.

Zuhairoh, F. and Rosadi, D. (2020) 'Real-time forecasting of the COVID-19 epidemic using the Richards model in South Sulawesi, Indonesia', Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, 5(3), pp. 456–462. DOI: 10.17509/ijost.v5i3.26139.