A Review of Coal Liquefaction Using Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL) and Indirect Coal Liquefaction (ICL) Techniques
Keywords:Coal Liquefaction, DCL, ICL
AbstractCoal liquefaction is a process of converting solid coal fuel into liquid fuel. This process is developed by various countries to overcome the scarcity of liquid fuels; therefore, this coal liquefaction is very useful for countries that have few petroleum reserves yet, have large coal reserves. There are two coal liquefaction techniques, namely direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). In ICL, there is a gasification process that usually develops products, generating Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid, methanol (CH3OH/MeOH), and dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3/DME). On the other hand, DCL involves a hydrogenation reaction to produce synthetic gasoline and diesel, which is the same as LPG, a hydrocarbon fuel product similar to hydrocarbon fuel derived from petroleum. This paper discusses the ICL and DCL coal liquefaction techniques, including the process stages, the type of catalyst used, and the products resulted from these techniques.
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